1 It is cold in winter. There is snow on the ground. People live in warm houses. What do animals do? Some animals sleep in winter. This is called “hibernation.” Thanks to this long, deep sleep, they can save energy and live through the winter with little or no food.
2 (1) ◆There are different kinds of hibernation.◆ Woodchucks* are among the ‘true’ sleepers. While they are in hibernation, their heartbeat* drops from 80 to 4 or 5 every minute, and their body temperature drops from 36.6 to 3.3℃. During hibernation, they get up every few weeks to eat. Once they begin to sleep, it is difficult for them to wake up because of their low heartbeat and body temperature. On the other hand, bears are called ‘light’ sleepers. Their heartbeat drops from 50 to about 10 every minute, but their body temperature drops only a little. (2) ◆This makes it possible for them to wake up quickly.◆ Bears do not eat or drink at all, however, for six months during hibernation.
3 How about cold-blooded animals* like frogs? They can’t stay warm by themselves. So frogs sleep under the ground to stay warm during the winter. When spring comes and the sun warms the ground, they come out.
4 How do animals know it is time to begin hibernation? Scientists have found a unique ability in some species of chipmunks*. They say that these chipmunks have special proteins* which make them sleep in winter. When the proteins in the blood move into the brain, chipmunks start hibernation. After protein levels in the blood go up again, their hibernation ends. The scientists say that hibernation is controlled by the yearly rhythm of the body.
5 The scientists also have found through their research that hibernation protects animals from bacterial* infection*, cancer and so on. Some scientists believe they may be able to use the idea of hibernation for people to stop diseases like cancer. They may also save sick or injured people by putting them in a kind of hibernation until treatments are ready. Hibernation is still a mystery, but in the near future there may be medical treatment using hibernation. Until then, scientists will continue to study the mechanism of hibernation.(365 words)
* woodchuck:名 ウッドチャック(リス科の動物)  heartbeat:名 心拍数
cold-blooded animals:名 変温動物  chipmunk:名 シマリス  protein:名 タンパク質 bacterial:形 細菌の  infection:名 感染



1 下の表は下線部(1)についてまとめたものです。(a),(e)は適切な語を書き,それ以外はYesかNoか適切なほうを選びなさい。(1点×8=8点)
Types of hibernation
Name of animal
Does heartbeat drop?
Does body temperature drop a lot?
Do they eat food?

(a)(   ) sleepers
(b)( Yes / No )
(c)( Yes / No )
(d)( Yes / No )
(e)(   ) sleepers
(f)( Yes / No )
(g)( Yes / No )
(h)( Yes / No )

2 下線部(2)を,This,themの内容を明らかにして日本語にしなさい。(5点)

3 次の文章はシマリス(chipmunk)の冬眠について説明したものです。(a)~(e)に適切な日本語または数字を入れなさい。(2点×5=10点)
シマリスは冬眠を可能にする特別な(a)(     )を持っており,それが血液中から(b)(     )に移動すると,シマリスは冬眠を(c)(     )。そして,血液中に特別な(a)(     )が再び増えると,冬眠を(d)(     )。これは(e)(     )年ごとの周期変動で制御されているという。

4 冬眠を人間に応用できる可能性として,あてはまらないものを1つ選びなさい。(4点)
① がんのような病気の進行を止める。
② 体温と心拍数を下げて治療を行う。
③ 治療法が用意できるまで,けがをした人を冬眠状態にしておく。 (  )

5 本文の内容に合っていれば○を,合っていなければ×を書きなさい。(3点×3=9点)
(a) Some animals wake up every few months and eat food during hibernation. (  )
(b) Frogs need to sleep in the ground during the winter because they have to keep themselves warm. (  )
(c) Scientists solved the mystery of hibernation by studying animals for a long time. (  )






CHECK! □drop □temperature □every+期間 □it is time to do
□ability □yearly □rhythm □injured □treatment
□medical □mechanism


1 [ ]内から適切な接続詞を選びなさい。(3点×4=12点)
(1) Get up right now, [ and / or ] you’ll be late for school.
(2) [ But / Although ] the questions were difficult, she was able to answer all of them.
(3) Don’t open the door [ until / since ] I get home.
(4) The telephone rang [ while / during ] I was cooking.

1 日本語の意味に合うように,□から適切な接続詞を選びなさい。ただし,接続詞は1度ずつしか使えません。(3点×4=12点)
(1) 大雪が降っているけれども,私たちは外出する。
We will go out           it is snowing heavily.
(2) 私が駅に到着したときに,雨が降り始めた。
It began to rain           I got to the station.
(3) ジェーンがケンを好きかどうか,私にはわからない。
I don’t know           Jane likes Ken or not.
(4) 今日はいい天気なので,私たちはバーベキューパーティーをするつもりだ。
it’s a beautiful day, we are going to have a barbecue party.

even though

例を参考にし,(a) soを,(b) becauseを使って,次の日本語を英語に直しなさい。(5点×4=20点)
The traffic was very heavy, so I didn’t arrive on time.
原因/理由→so「それで…」→結果 soは文と文をつなぐ接続詞
I didn’t arrive on time because the traffic was very heavy.
結果←because「なぜなら…」原因/理由 becauseは文に情報を加える接続詞
(1) 雨が激しく(heavily)降ったので,その野球の試合は延期された。
(a) __________________________________
(b) __________________________________
(2) 彼女はかぜをひいていた(have a cold)ので,昨日,学校を休んだ。
(a) __________________________________
(b) __________________________________

Review 前課で学習した文です。英語で書けるか確認しよう。(→p.58)


1 Wolves live in family groups called packs. The wolf pack always has a leader. How can you tell which wolf is the pack leader? It is usually the biggest male. He looks proud and stands tall*. He holds his head and tail high. He is the king, and he knows it. When he comes close to another wolf in the pack, that wolf will hang its head down and put its tail between its rear* legs. Then it will roll over on its back to say, “I give in. You are too strong for me!” For this reason, wolves usually don’t fight among themselves. The weaker ones always give up before a real fight begins.
* stand tall:堂々としている rear:後ろの
① How to Become a Pack Leader
② The Wolf Pack and Its Leader
③ The Reason Wolves Live in Packs
④ The Important Role of the Pack Leader (  )

2 There is a unique hotel which is only made of ice and snow in Quebec*, Canada. It is called the Ice Hotel and is built every December. It has 32 rooms and 80 people can stay there each night. The hotel even has a movie theater, art gallery, and church. Of course, all of the parts of the hotel, furniture, art, lights, and drinking glasses are made of ice. The temperature inside the hotel is always between -2 and 5℃, so all guests have to keep their winter coats on. Surprisingly, sleeping is not a problem in the freezing cold hotel rooms. Every guest gets a special sleeping bag and some fur blankets. These keep them comfortable and warm until morning.
* Quebec:ケベック(州)
① The History of the Ice Hotel
② The Main Features of the Ice Hotel
③ Why the Ice Hotel Is Made of Ice
④ The Ice Hotel and Its Problems (  )


◎give inの意味は?

(1) A hundred people finished the race in Toronto.
(2) Fauja Singh became the oldest person to run the full marathon.
(3) Fauja Singh started running marathons when he was 20.
(4) Fauja Singh eats light meals to stay healthy.
(5) Fauja Singh will quit running because he doesn’t want to break a leg.
(1) (  )  (2) (  )  (3) (  )  (4) (  )  (5) (  )



Review 本課のWritingで学習した文です。英語で書けるか確認しよう。[becauseを使って](→p.62)




UNIT 15 解答

◆具体例を見抜こう: 英文解説参照(第2段落2文目:Woodchucks,6文目:bears,9文目:Bears,第3段落1, 3文目:frogs,第4段落2, 3, 4文目:chipmunks)
1 (a) true (b) Yes (c) Yes (d) Yes (e) light (f) Yes (g) No (h) No  ◎hibernation「冬眠」
2 体温がわずかしか下がらないおかげで,クマはすぐに目を覚ますことができる。  ◎to wake up quickly
3 (a) タンパク質  (b) 脳  (c) 始める  (d) 終える  (e) 1   4 ②
5 (a) ×  (b) ○  (c) ×

1 (1) or (2) Although (3) until (4) while
2 (1) even though (2) as (3) whether (4) Since

(1) (a) It rained heavily, so the baseball game was put off[postponed].
(b) The baseball game was put off because it rained heavily.
(2) (a) She had a cold, so she was absent from school yesterday.
(b) She was absent from school yesterday because she had a cold.
Review I left home at 8:30 this morning.

Various Questions 1 ② ◎give in「降参する」   2 ②

Listening (1) ×  (2) ○  (3) ×  (4) ○  (5) ×
Review I didn’t arrive on time because the traffic was very heavy.

Dictation  1) during 2) southern, warm 3) species, are known, ability 4) body temperature





UNIT 15 全文訳
1 冬は寒い。地面には雪が積もっている。人々は暖かい家で暮らしている。動物は何をしているのだろうか。ある動物たちは冬には眠る。これは「冬眠」と呼ばれる。この長く深い眠りのおかげで,彼らはエネルギーを節約し,ほとんど,あるいはまったくえさを食べずにひと冬を過ごすことができる。
2 冬眠にはさまざまな種類がある。ウッドチャックは「本物の」冬眠動物の一種だ。冬眠中,彼らの心拍数は毎分80回から4~5回に減り,体温は36.6℃から3.3℃に下がる。冬眠中に,彼らは食べるために数週間ごとに起きる。いったん眠り始めると,彼らは,低い心拍数と低い体温のために,目を覚ますのが難しい。一方,クマは「軽度の」冬眠動物と呼ばれる。彼らの心拍数は毎分50回から約10回に減るが,体温はわずかしか下がらない。このおかげで,彼らはすぐに目を覚ますことができる。しかしながら,クマは冬眠中の6か月間,まったく飲まず食わずなのだ。
3 カエルのような変温動物はどうだろうか。彼らは自力では暖かさを保つことができない。だから,カエルは冬の間,暖かさを保つために地中で眠る。春が来て太陽が地面を暖めると,彼らは出てくる。
4 冬眠を始める時だということを,動物たちはどうやって知るのだろうか。科学者たちはシマリスのいくつかの種に独特な能力があるのを発見した。科学者たちは,これらのシマリスは,冬に彼らを眠らせる特別なタンパク質を持っていると言う。血液中のそのタンパク質が脳に移動すると,シマリスは冬眠を始める。血液中のタンパク質濃度が再び上昇すると,彼らの冬眠は終わる。科学者たちは,冬眠は体の1年ごとの周期的な変動によって制御されていると言っている。
5 科学者たちは研究を通して,冬眠は動物を細菌感染やがんなどから守っているということも発見した。科学者たちの中には,がんのような病気の進行を止めるために,人間に冬眠の考え方を使うことができるかもしれないと信じる者もいる。彼らはまた,治療法が用意できるまでの間,病人やけがをした人をある種の冬眠状態に置くことによって,彼らを助けることができるかもしれない。冬眠はまだ謎に包まれているが,近い将来には冬眠を使った医学療法ができるかもしれない。それまで,科学者たちは冬眠の仕組みを研究し続けるだろう。