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本文

Lesson 3

 

Designed to Change the World

 

「プロダクトデザイン」という言葉を聞いたことがありますか.人びとの暮らしに役立つ製品をデザインすることです.今,デザインの力で世界の貧困層の人びとの暮らしを変える取り組みが始まっています.

 

Design is not just what it looks like and feels like.

Design is how it works.

Steve Jobs

 

1

We often say things like “That dress has a nice design” or “This smartphone is cool.”  But when you say something is well designed, do you ever think about who it’s designed for?  For example, a designer works hard to create an elegant design for a new car.  For consumers in advanced industrial countries, its beautiful appearance is important.  However, for poor people in developing countries, who make up the majority of the human race, the beauty of a car’s design may not have much importance in their lives.

“Ninety-five percent of the world’s designers focus all of their efforts on developing products exclusively for the richest 10 percent of the world’s customers,” says Paul Polak, founder of a nonprofit organization that creates practical products for developing countries.  “Nothing less than a revolution in design is needed to reach the other 90 percent.”  He calls this new way of thinking about making products “Design for the other 90 percent.”

Today, some designers are starting to design products for “the other 90 percent,” including billions of people who do not have regular access to the basic necessities of life, such as food, safe drinkable water, or shelter.  The new designs directly address the problems that they are facing and are improving their lives.

 

2

Millions of people in the world live many kilometers away from sources of safe drinking water.  If they drink unsafe water, they may get a disease that is carried through water, such as cholera or dysentery.  So they have to spend many hours each day transporting water from drinkable sources.  People carry heavy loads of it on their heads over long distances, and this often damages their necks and shoulders.  For hundreds of years, this hard labor has been done mainly by women and children.

The Q-Drum was created to solve this problem.  It is a round tank with a hole in the center and was designed to transport water by “rolling it.”  The Q-Drum greatly reduces the strain of carrying water.  One family in East Timor had been making four trips each day to carry 40 liters of water until they got the Q-Drum.  However, with the Q-Drum, they are now able to transport 50 liters of water at a time, so they only need to make one trip.

One South African woman who uses the Q-Drum says, “Water is our life.  Now life is easier.  I had seen my mother and her mother bent double and walking with sticks even before they were old, because of the days they spent carrying water.  Even the small children can use the drum.  They make a game of it.  And their parents are free to work on other things for the family.”

 

3

Can you imagine life without electricity?  If it were not for electricity, your lives would be completely different.  However, more than two billion people throughout the world live without electricity.  Many of them use kerosene lamps for light, but the lamps give off harmful fumes and do not provide sufficient light for working or studying.  Also, the cost of using kerosene every day is a heavy burden on the family budget.

Sam Goldman, an American who was living and working as a volunteer in a village in Benin, a country in West Africa, understood this problem.  One day, there was an incident in the village, which had no electricity.  A kerosene lamp had started a fire which burned down his neighbor’s house, and a 12-year-old boy was badly burned.  This incident spurred Goldman to develop a safe and cost-efficient lantern.  He took a course at Stanford University geared to designing products for people in developing countries.  Through the course he developed a solar-powered lantern which he called the Kiran Solar Lantern.  This lantern can provide up to eight hours of light when it is fully charged and does not require any fuel.

This lantern has provided two million people in over 40 countries throughout the world with a new source of light.  Now children have a better study environment.  “This lantern is much brighter than a kerosene lamp,” says one 14-year-old girl in India.  “Now we are more interested in studying.”  There is another benefit.  Since the lantern has allowed people to work longer hours at night, their monthly incomes have increased.

 

4

Designing the kinds of products for “the other 90 percent” requires a different approach.  When designers try to make product designs more attractive or when more functions are added, product prices go up.  People with money are able and willing to pay for those products.  However, 2.6 billion people in the world live on less than two dollars a day and have only pennies to spend on necessities.  For them, products must above all be affordable.

Before creating low-cost products, designers must understand the lifestyles of people in developing countries.  They have to find out what kind of products they want and how much they can afford to spend on them.  “You must look for what people really need ― no more, no less,” says Goldman.

People living in poverty welcome this attitude.  “We feel that now we are finally being recognized as customers,” they say.  “We’re happy that designers are asking us about our needs and developing products to meet them.”  As for the designers, they can see their designs are improving people’s lives.  With the aim of fighting poverty, designers are reaching out to people in local communities to create practical and even life-saving products.  One by one, their designs are changing the world.

 

 

 

p.31

Get the Picture

1.

What is important for consumers in advanced industrial countries?

 

2.

For whom do most of the world’s designers create products?

 

make up   ex. Women make up 70% of the students at this college.

focus on ...  ex. I need to focus my mind on my studies.

nothing less than   ex. Winning the game was nothing less than a miracle.

 

smartphone     elegant     consumer

advanced     industrial     appearance

majority     focus     exclusively     customer

Paul Polak     founder     nonprofit

organization     practical     revolution

 

p.32

Get the Picture

3.

How are the new designs helping “the other 90 percent”?

 

4.

What do people have to do to get safe drinking water each day?

 

Women carrying water on their heads in Sudan

 

cholera「コレラ」コレラ菌による感染症.

dysentery「赤痢」赤痢菌による感染症.

 

billion     access     necessity     drinkable

unsafe     disease     cholera     dysentery

transport     load     distance

 

p.33

Get the Picture

5.

What is a benefit of the Q-Drum?

 

WINDOW 1

The Q-Drum

The name of the Q-Drum comes from its shape; with the rope attached, it looks like the letter ”Q.”  The unique Q-Drum has a hole in the center like a doughnut’s.  By tying a rope to the drum through this hole, one can pull it.  There are no handles that could be broken, and the rope can be replaced by other things, such as a strip of leather or a rope made from plant material.

 

make a trip  ex. I made a long trip to the hospital to visit my father.

 

East Timor「東ティモール」東南アジアの国.2002年にインドネシアから独立.

 

drum     tank     strain     East Timor     liter

South African

 

p.34

Children playing with the Q-Drum in a village in South Africa

 

Get the Picture

6.

What are the weak points of kerosene lamps?

 

bent double  ex. He was bent double in pain.

 

electricity     kerosene     lamp     harmful     fume

sufficient     burden     budget

 

p.35

Get the Picture

7.

What made Sam Goldman develop a safe and cost-efficient lantern?

 

8.

What are the features of the Kiran Solar Lantern?

 

The Kiran Solar Lantern

 

spur to do  ex. The painful experience spurred him to work harder.

(be) geared to   ex. This training program is geared to helping foreign students.

up to   ex. I can get up to seven people in my car.

 

Benin「ベナン」アフリカ西部の国.

Stanford University「スタンフォード大学」米国のカリフォルニア州にある私立大学.

 

Sam Goldman    Benin     West Africa

incident     spur     lantern     Stanford     gear

Kiran     charge     require     fuel

 

p.36

Get the Picture

9.

What are the two benefits of the Kiran Solar Lantern?

 

The Kiran Solar Lantern (right) improves children’s study environments.

 

India     monthly     income

 

p.37

WINDOW 2

The Kiran Solar Lantern

This lantern is charged by a solar panel which is attached to the top.  It can provide light that is three times the brightness of a kerosene lamp.  This product is designed so that it can be used in a variety of ways.  It can be carried as a portable lantern, hung from walls or ceilings, or placed on any surface to effectively light up the surrounding area.

 

Get the Picture

10.

What must the products for “the other 90 percent” above all be?

 

be willing to do  ex. Are you willing to help her?

above all  ex. She is hardworking, bright, and above all honest.

 

approach     attractive     penny     affordable

 

p.38

Get the Picture

11.

What do designers have to do before they create low-cost products?

 

12.

What are designers doing to fight poverty?

 

with the aim of doing  ex. I went to the U.S. with the aim of studying English.

reach out to   ex. Our group needs to find new ways of reaching out to young people.

one by one  ex. One by one, people began to arrive at the party.

 

afford     attitude     aim

 

Workshop

 

Summary Chart

本文の内容に合うように,表を完成しなさい.

 

Part 1    A change in design

The situation until now

Most of the world’s (  ) create products for the (  ) (  ) percent of the world’s customers.

A new movement in design

Paul Polak proposes a concept called “Design for the (  ) (  ) percent,” and some designers are starting to (  ) products for them.

 

Part 2    A design that provides safe drinking water: the Q-Drum

Problems for people who live far away from safe drinking water sources

They have to spend many hours each day (  ) (  ).  Carrying heavy loads of it often (  ) their necks and shoulders.

The benefit of the Q-Drum

It greatly (  ) the strain of carrying water.

 

Part 3    A design that provides electric light: the Kiran Solar Lantern

Problems for people who live without electricity

Kerosene lamps, which people use for light, give off  (  ) (  ), do not provide (  ) (  ), and have high fuel costs.

Sam Goldman’s invention of the Kiran Solar Lantern

A fire accident (  ) him to develop a safe and (  ) lantern that uses solar power.  It can (  ) eight hours of light and does not need any (  ).

The benefits of the Kiran Solar Lantern

Children have a better  (  ) (  ), and people’s incomes have (  ).

 

Part 4    Designs that change the world

The main requirement for products for “the other 90 percent”

Products must above all be (  ).  Before creating (  ) products, designers must understand poor people’s (  ) and what they really (  ).

Cooperation between designers and people living in poverty

With the aim of  (  ) (  ), designers are reaching out to local people to create (  ) and even (  ) products.

 

 

 

LISTEN & REACT

Jessicaと秀一の対話を聞いて質問に答えなさい.12は最も適切な答えを選び,3は英語で答えなさい.

 

  1. What did Shuichi say is a problem that millions of people in the world are facing?

(a) People have to spend many hours buying safe drinking water.

(b) People are at risk of getting a disease that is carried through water.

(c) People injure their necks and shoulders while carrying heavy loads of water.

  1. How has the Q-Drum changed some people’s way of life?

(a) They don’t have to go far to get drinking water anymore.

(b) They don’t have to go to the water source so many times in a day.

(c) Only children carry water now.

  1. What do designers have to do before creating products for people in developing countries?

                                       

 

 

 

MAKE YOUR COMMENTS

宣伝ポスターを作る

 

① 写真の製品に関する英文を聞いて,以下の質問に答えなさい.

Questions

  1. What is the name of the product?

                                       

  1. What is the purpose of the product?

                                       

  1. What are the features of the product?

                                       

  1. Explain how to use the product.

                                       

 

② グループになって,安全な水源が近くにない人たちが,飲み水を手に入れやすくなるための製品を考え,以下のメモをまとめなさい.

Name of the product:                                                                                   

Purpose of the product:                                                                                

Features of the product:                                                                               

How to use the product:                                                                               

 

Tool Box vehicle carrying water, filter dirty water, filtering device [system], dig a well, pump up groundwater, collect [store, reuse, recycle] rainwater, turn seawater into fresh water, use solar power

 

③ ②のメモをもとに,自分たちが考えた製品のキャッチコピーとスケッチを入れた宣伝ポスターを作ってみよう.完成させたポスターを使って,この製品についてクラスで説明してみよう.

Name of the product

Catch copy of the product

Drawing of the product

 

 

Features of the product or how to use it:

                                       

                                       

 

 

 

Grammar for Communication

Focus

One day, there was an incident in the village, which had no electricity. 35.3

何をどれだけ否定するのか―「否定表現」

 

I have no money.

“no money”:モノの存在を否定(NO

=所持金の量がゼロ

 

I don’t have any money.

“have some money” というコトを否定(NOT

 

noはモノの存在を否定して数量[程度]がゼロであることを示す.notは出来事の成立を否定して「~ではない」という意味を表す.

  1. I don’t have any brothers.(兄弟がいるというコトを否定)

  I have no brothers.(兄弟はゼロ人だという発想)

  1. He is not a gentleman.(紳士ではない)

  He is no gentleman.(紳士である度合い(紳士らしさ)がゼロ)

  He is never a gentleman.(紳士である頻度(紳士として振る舞う確率)がゼロ)

  1. He is not younger than I am.(より若いわけではない

  He is no younger than I am.(より若い度合いがゼロ=同じ程度にしか若くない)

  1. Not all the members were happy to hear the news.(すべて~というわけではない)
  2. None of the members were happy to hear the news.
  3. Money does not necessarily make you happy.(必ずしも~というわけではない)

all, every, both, necessarilyなどをnotで否定すると,「すべて[両方,必ずしも]~というわけではない」という部分否定になる.すべてを否定するには,no , nothing, nobody, none, neither, neverなどを使って表現する.

 

Task 以下の英文は,Youth という詩の一節です.否定表現の使い方に注目して,メッセージを感じ取ってみよう.

Youth is not a time of life; it is a state of mind; it is not a matter of rosy cheeks, red lips and supple knees; it is a matter of the will, a quality of the imagination, a vigor of the emotions; it is the freshness of the deep springs of life .... Nobody grows old merely by a number of years. We grow old by deserting our ideals.

 

 

Structures and Expressions

① 過去完了進行形(「過去のある時点までずっと~していた」を表す)

  1. He had been waiting for two hours when she appeared.
  2. One family in East Timor had been making four trips each day to carry 40 liters of water until they got the Q-Drum. 33.5
  3. I had been working for five hours without a break, when I suddenly felt sick.

※過去の基準となる時点は,when, until, beforeなどが導く節などで明示されることもあるが,文脈から判断される場合もある.

 

Task 以下の状況に合うように,(  )内の動詞を適切な形に変えて,英語で表現してみよう.

  1. 状況 彼女が目をはらしていたのに気づいて.

     A: Her eyes were red.  Did you notice it?

     B: Yeah.  I thought she ずっと泣いていた(cry.

  1. 状況 会社を設立した動機を問われて.

     A: So what made you start your own business?

     B: For one thing, the company 私がずっと働いていた(work for moved overseas.

 

If it were not for ~(「もし~がなかったら」という仮想の状況を設定する)

  1. If it were not for electricity, your lives would be completely different. 34.8
  2. Without electricity, your lives would be completely different.
  3. If it had not been for your warning, I would have been in trouble.
  4. Without your warning, I would have been in trouble.

 

Task 以下の状況に合うように,与えられた語句を参考にして,英語で表現してみよう.

  1. 状況 音楽のない人生なんてつまらない.( not / for / music

                                     , how boring our lives would be!

  1. 状況 君がわがままだから僕たちはうまくいかない.( not / for / your selfishness

     We would get along better                                       .

  1. 状況 彼は奨学金のおかげで留学ができた.( not / for / the scholarship

                                          , he couldn’t have studied abroad.

 

 

 

スポンサーリンク

和訳

Part 1

私たちはよく「あのドレスはデザインがよい」とか「このスマートフォンはかっこいい」などと言います.しかし,あるものがうまくデザインされていると言うとき,それは誰のためにデザインされているのかについて考えることはありますか.例えば,デザイナーは新車向けに,洗練されたデザインを苦心して作り出します.先進工業国の消費者にとっては,その美しい外観は重要です.しかし,開発途上国の貧しい人々,彼らは人類の大多数を構成しているのですが,彼らにとって車のデザインの美しさは,生活の中でそれほど重要ではないかもしれません.

「世界のデザイナーの95%が,もっぱら,世界の顧客のうち最も裕福な10%のための製品を開発することに努力のすべてを注いでいます」とポール・ポラックは言います.彼は,開発途上国向けに実用的な製品を作っている非営利団体の創設者です.「残り90%の人々に届くためには,まさにデザインにおける革命が必要なのです.」彼はこの製品作りに関する新しい考え方を「残り90%の人々のためのデザイン」と呼んでいます.

今日,一部のデザイナーたちが「残り90%の人々」向けの製品をデザインし始めていますが,その中には食糧,安全な飲み水,住まいのような,基本的な生活必需品を日常的に得られるわけではない,何十億もの人々が含まれています.新たなデザインが直接,彼らの直面している問題に対処し,彼らの生活を向上させつつあります.

 

Part 2

世界の何百万もの人々が,安全な飲料水の水源から何キロも離れた所に住んでいます.もし彼らが安全でない水を飲むと,コレラや赤痢のような,水が媒介する病気にかかるかもしれません.そこで,彼らは飲用に適した水源から水を運ぶのに,毎日何時間も費やさなければならないのです.人々は重い水の荷を頭の上に乗せて長い距離を運び,そのせいでしばしば首や肩を痛めます.何百年もの間,この重労働は,主に女性と子供によってなされてきました.

Qドラムは,この問題を解決するために作られました.それは真ん中に穴のある丸いタンクで,水を「転がして」運べるようにデザインされました.Qドラムは水を運ぶ負担を大幅に軽減します.東ティモールのある家族は,Qドラムを手に入れるまでずっと,40リットルの水を運ぶために毎日4往復していました.しかしQドラムを使って,今では50リットルの水を1回で運ぶことができるので,1往復するだけでよいのです.

Qドラムを利用している南アフリカのある女性は言います.「水は私たちの生活そのものです.今は生活が以前よりも楽です.私は,母や祖母が,水を運んで過ごした日々が原因で,老人になる前でさえ腰が深く曲がり,杖をついて歩いているのを見てきました.小さな子供でもQドラムを使うことができます.彼らはそれで遊びます.そして,その親たちは,家族のためにほかのことをする時間が取れます」

 

Part 3

電気のない生活を想像できますか.もし電気がなかったら,皆さんの生活はまったく違っていることでしょう.しかしながら,世界中で20億以上の人々が電気のない生活をしています.その多くが照明のために灯油ランプを使いますが,灯油ランプは有害な煙を出し,仕事や勉強をするのに十分な明かりを供給しません.また,毎日の灯油代は家計の大きな負担になります.

サム・ゴールドマンは,西アフリカの国ベナンのある村に住み,ボランティアとして働いていたアメリカ人ですが,この問題を理解していました.ある日,村で事件が起きました.その村には電気がありませんでした.灯油ランプが彼の隣家を全焼させるという火事を起こし,12歳の少年が大やけどを負ったのです.この事件がゴールドマンを,安全で費用効率の高いランタン(手提げランプ)を開発するよう駆り立てました.彼は,開発途上国の人々向けの製品をデザインすることに適した,スタンフォード大学の講座を履修しました.その講座で彼は,キラン・ソーラー・ランタンと名づけた太陽光発電のランタンを開発しました.このランタンは,完全に充電すると最大で8時間の明かりを提供でき,燃料をまったく必要としません.

このランタンは世界の40を超える国々の,200万の人々に新しい光源を供給しました.今では子供たちには,よりよい学習環境があります.「このランタンは灯油ランプよりずっと明るいです」と,インドのある14歳の少女は言います.「今は,(以前より)もっと勉強に興味を持っています.」別の恩恵もあります.ランタンのおかげで,夜間により長い時間仕事ができるようになったため,人々の毎月の収入が増えました.

 

Part 4

「残り90%の人々」向けの製品をデザインするには,違ったやり方が必要です.デザイナーが製品のデザインをより魅力的にしようとしたり,あるいは,より多くの機能が加えられたりすると,製品の価格は上がります.裕福な人々はそれらの製品の代金を払うことができるし,支払ってもかまわないと思っています.しかし,世界の26億の人々は,1日2ドル未満で暮らしており,生活必需品にほんのわずかのお金しか費やせません.彼らにとっては,製品は何よりも手が届く値段でなければなりません.

低価格の製品を作り出す前に,デザイナーは開発途上国の人々の生活スタイルを理解しなければなりません.彼らがどのような種類の製品を欲しがっており,それに対していくらなら支払う余裕があるのか知らなければなりません.「人々が本当に必要としているものを探さなければなりません.それ以上でもなく,それ以下でもなく」とゴールドマンは言います.

貧しい暮らしをする人々は,こうした姿勢を歓迎しています.「私たちは今ようやく顧客として認められつつあると感じます」と彼らは言います.「デザイナーたちが私たちの必要としている物について尋ね,それに応じた製品を開発しているのでうれしいです」と.デザイナーについて言えば,彼らは自分たちのデザインが人々の生活を向上させているのを目にすることができます.貧困と闘う目的で,デザイナーたちは実用的で命を救うことさえできる製品を作り出すために,現地の人々と意思疎通を図ろうとしています.一つ,また一つと,彼らのデザインが世界を変えつつあります.

 

最強の英文法
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