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Lesson 7

 

Inspired by Nature

 

地球上に存在する生物は,何百万種にも上ると言われています.生物はいずれも独自の形態や人間にはない特殊な能力を持っています.今,自然が生み出した驚くべき形やしくみに学び,私たちの暮らしに活かす研究が注目を集めています.

 

Look deep into nature, and then you will

understand everything better.

Albert Einstein

 

1

The 500 Series Shinkansen, the first train in Japan to achieve a speed of 300 kilometers per hour, is easily recognized by its long, pointed nose.  The distinctive design was inspired by a certain species of bird.

When a high-speed train like the Shinkansen enters a tunnel, quite a loud noise is made at the other end of the tunnel.  To reduce that noise, the designers of the 500 Series took a hint from the beak of the kingfisher.  The kingfisher dives into the water at a speed of about 100 kilometers per hour to catch fish, yet it hardly makes a splash.  This is because its beak is shaped to reduce water resistance.  By modeling the nose of the 500 Series on the kingfisher’s beak, its designers succeeded in reducing the air resistance and noise it would generate when entering a tunnel.

Scientists and engineers around the world today are fascinated by the potential of biomimetics studying the structures and functions of living organisms in order to design technologies useful to humans.  Biomimetics, derived from bio-, “life,” and mimetic, “imitate,” means the imitation of living things.  Andrew Parker, an expert in the field, describes the natural world as “a treasure trove of brilliant designs.”  Over millions of years of evolution, each species has acquired a form best suited for survival.  We have much to learn from the ingenious designs that evolution has created.

 

 

2

The idea of borrowing technologies from living organisms has been around for a long time.  More than five hundred years ago, Leonardo da Vinci saw a dragonfly hovering in the air and sketched a design for a helicopter.  In the 19th century, a German engineer named Otto Lilienthal built and test-flew a series of gliders inspired by his observations of storks.

Recent developments in nanotechnology the science of engineering on a scale of just millionths of a millimeter now make it possible to imitate the microscopic structures of living organisms.  One example is the development of materials imitating lotus leaves, which repel water and in effect clean themselves.  How do they do that?  The leaf’s surface is covered in tiny bumps 5 to 15 micrometers in size.  These bumps catch any water droplets and let them roll off, taking dirt with them.  So the lotus leaf is always clean.  This mechanism was used to develop a water-repellent paint.   Applied to a wall, it creates millions of tiny bumps on the surface that help keep it clean for many years.  The lotus leaf has similarly inspired the development of a highly water-repellent fabric used in umbrellas.

 

3

Biomimetics is also helping find solutions to our energy problems.  Engineers have come up with an energy-efficient building design that reduces the need for air conditioning by imitating the ventilation system of a termite nest.  One species of termite native to Africa builds a hill five meters high.  Outside the temperature can reach as high as 50 degrees during the day and drop below zero at night, but inside the termite nest it remains constant at around 30 degrees.  The secret lies in the structure of the termite nest: it has many air passages that keep the temperature inside at a steady level by enabling air to circulate.  In the African country of Zimbabwe a shopping center was built by imitating that design.  It uses only one-tenth of the power normally needed for air conditioning.

The distinctive shape of the humpback whale’s fins with their jagged front edge has a potential application for wind power.  In the case of a structure designed to achieve high speed, such as the wing of a jet, the front edge must be smooth to reduce resistance.  But the humpback whale swims slowly, and at such low speeds a jagged edge actually reduces resistance.  A rotor blade for wind turbines is now being developed by imitating the whale’s jagged fins.   Designed to turn slowly in the breeze, it should be able to generate electricity even where winds are mild.  In addition, it makes little noise when turning, so people living nearby won’t be disturbed.

 

4

The structures and systems existing in nature offer us a countless number of ideas.  But often they are so complex that there is little point in copying them.

Take the snail’s shell, for example, which is always beautifully clean.  Why?  The surface of the shell is covered in tiny grooves only a few hundred nanometers wide that are always filled with water; any dirt on the shell is in fact only floating on water.  When rain falls, the dirt is washed off with the water.  It might be possible to develop a dirt-proof material by reproducing this structure.  Cutting the microscopic grooves on the surface of the material, however, would require more energy than it is worth.  Biomimetics aims not to imitate nature exactly but to look for clues in it to develop energy-efficient, eco-friendly technologies.

Humans have spent huge amounts of energy and resources to create the wonders of modern civilization, but there has been great damage to the earth as a result.  Our natural resources are limited, and further damage to the environment must be prevented.  Biomimetics provides us with various hints to help solve these problems.  To survive on this planet, now more than ever we must be willing to learn humbly from nature.

 

 

 

p.87

Get the Picture

1.

Why does a kingfisher hardly make a splash when it dives into the water?

 

2.

How did the designers of the 500 Series reduce the noise it would generate?

 

A kingfisher dives to catch a fish.

A 500 Series Shinkansen

 

model on ...  ex. They modeled the new building on a pyramid.

 

series     distinctive     tunnel     hint     beak

kingfisher     dive     hardly     splash     resistance

generate

 

p.88

Get the Picture

3.

What is biomimetics?

 

4.

Why does Andrew Parker describe the natural world as “a treasure trove of brilliant designs”?

 

WINDOW 1

The noise generated by a high-speed train

When a high-speed train enters a tunnel, a wave of compressed air is generated in front of the train.  This compressed air is ejected from the opposite end, resulting in a large noise and strong vibrations.

 

Tunnel

Wave of compressed air

 

(be) derived from   ex. The word is derived from the French.

(be) suited for   ex. He is suited for the job.

 

biomimetics     structure     derive     bio

mimetic     imitate     imitation     Andrew Parker

expert     treasure trove     brilliant     evolution

suit     survival     ingenious

 

p.89

Get the Picture

5.

Give two examples of the idea of borrowing technologies from living organisms.

 

Sketch of a “helicopter” drawn by Leonardo da Vinci

 

6.

How do lotus leaves keep themselves clean?

 

a series of   ex. There has been a series of accidents on this road.

in effect  ex. She answered most of the questions and in effect passed the test.

 

Leonardo da Vinci「レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチ」(14521519)イタリアの芸術家・科学者・発明家.

Otto Lilienthal「オットー・リリエンタール」(18481896)ドイツの技師.飛行機研究の開拓者.

nanotechnology「ナノテクノロジー」ナノメートル(1ナノメートル=10億分の1メートル)の寸法単位で物質を加工する技術.

 

Leonardo da Vinci     dragonfly     hover

helicopter     Otto Lilienthal     glider     stork

nanotechnology     scale     millionth     lotus

repel     surface     bump     micrometer

 

p.90

Get the Picture

7.

What was developed by imitating lotus leaves?

 

8.

What did engineers imitate when they designed an energy-efficient building?

 

The surface structure of a lotus leaf

Bumps on a lotus leaf viewed through an electron microscope

Water droplet

Leaf’s surface

 

Water-repellent paint modeled on the structure of a lotus leaf

 

roll off  ex. The ball rolled off the table.

 

ventilation「換気」  termite「シロアリ」

 

dirt     mechanism     repellent     fabric

umbrella     solution     ventilation     termite

nest

 

p.91

Get the Picture

9.

Why does the temperature in a termite nest remain at a constant level?

 

WINDOW 2

Termite nest ventilation system

Hot air rises from the nest and flows out through the large central passageways.

Cold air enters the nest from the ground below.

A shopping center in Zimbabwe inspired by a termite nest

 

(be) native to   ex. The potato is native to South America.

enable to do  ex. The Internet has enabled millions of people to communicate quickly and easily.

 

Zimbabwe「ジンバブエ」アフリカ南部の国.

 

zero     passage     steady     enable     circulate

Zimbabwe

 

p.92

Rotor blades inspired by the humpback whale’s fins

 

A humpback whale

 

Get the Picture

10.

What is being developed by imitating the humpback whale’s fins?

 

11.

What are two benefits of a rotor blade that imitates the humpback whale’s fins?

 

humpback whale「ザトウクジラ」  rotor blade「(発電機などの)回転翼」

 

humpback     whale     fin    jagged     edge

application     wing     jet     smooth     rotor

blade     turbine     breeze     mild     disturb

 

p.93

Get the Picture

12.

What does biomimetics aim to do?

 

snail     shell     groove     nanometer     float

proof     clue

 

p.94

Get the Picture

13.

What must we do to survive on this planet?

 

more than ever  ex. This country needs good leaders now more than ever.

 

civilization     further

 

 

 

Workshop

 

Summary Chart

本文の内容に合うように,表を完成しなさい.

 

Part 1    What is biomimetics?

An example of biomimetics

The 500 Series Shinkansen took a hint from the (  ) of the (  ) to reduce the air (  ) and (  ) it would generate when entering a tunnel.

The definition of biomimetics

Biomimetics, which means “the (  ) of living things,” is studying the (  ) and (  ) of living things to design technologies useful to humans.

 

Part 2    The development of biomimetics

Past examples of taking a hint from living things

Leonardo da Vinci saw a (  ) hovering and sketched a design for a (  ).

Otto Lilienthal built (  ) inspired by (  ).

Developments in biomimetics in recent years

(  ) makes it possible to imitate the (  ) structures of living things.  A (  ) paint has been developed by imitating the surface structure of a (  ) (  ).

 

Part 3    Biomimetics helps find solutions to energy problems

Energy-efficient building design

In Zimbabwe, a shopping center was built that imitated the (  ) system of a (  ) nest.  It uses much less power for (  ) (  ).

Application for wind power

A (  ) (  ) for wind turbines is being developed which is inspired by the humpback whale’s (  ).  It can (  ) electricity even where winds are (  ).

 

Part 4    Why must we learn from nature?

The aim of biomimetics

Biomimetics aims not to imitate nature exactly but to look for (  ) in nature to develop (  ), (  ) technologies.

The importance of learning from nature

Our (  ) (  ) are limited, and we must (  ) further (  ) to the environment.

Biomimetics offers us (  ) (  ) to help solve these problems.

We must learn from nature to (  ) on this planet.

 

 

LISTEN & REACT

Anneと健二の対話を聞いて質問に答えなさい.12は最も適切な答えを選び,3は英語で答えなさい.

 

  1. What are scientists and engineers exploring today?

(a) The mystery of nature.

(b) The possibilities of biomimetics.

(c) The designs of Leonardo da Vinci.

  1. When did Leonardo da Vinci sketch a design for a helicopter?

(a) About 500 years ago.

(b) During the late 1500s.

(c) It is not known.

  1. Why is it often not practical to copy the structures and systems existing in nature?

                                       

 

 

 

MAKE YOUR COMMENTS

プレゼンテーションをする

 

① 生物の形や機能に関する,以下の英文を読みなさい.

  1. Boxfish

The boxfish is shaped like a box.  You might think that having this kind of oddly shaped body would make it a slower swimmer than fish with long, thin bodies.  However, its mouth is pointed, so the whole body is actually quite streamlined and the boxfish moves through the water with little drag.  Also, the box-like shape of its body makes it strong against enemies.

V streamlined 流線型の  drag 抗力

 

  1. Gecko

The gecko has the ability to climb over smooth and slippery surfaces and even walk upside down on a ceiling.  The gecko’s toes are densely packed with tiny hairs that are one-thousandth the width of a human hair.  These extremely thin hairs stick to the smooth surface, and the gecko is able to cling to it.  The gecko can release its feet from the wall in an instant at will.

V slippery 滑りやすい  cling to ~ ~にくっつく

 

  1. Bees’ nest

A bees’ nest is composed of thousands of hexagon-shaped compartments that are seamlessly connected.  This “honeycomb structure,” as it is called, is very light and sturdy at the same time.  This honeycomb structure absorbs sound and shock, and is also effective for insulation.

V sturdy 頑丈な  insulation 断熱

 

② 以下の例を参考にして,グループになって,生物の形や機能をいかした製品を考えてみよう.

The name of the product: the Bionic Car

The living thing it is modeled after: the boxfish

Features of the living thing: its streamlined and box-like body

One good point about the product: it is fuel-efficient.

The streamlined body makes it go through the air with little drag.

The box-like shaped body is strong against shocks and can make it lighter.

 

③ ②で考えた製品をクラスで発表してみよう.

Hello, everyone.  Today we’d like to introduce our new product to you.

The name of the product is                                                                                                                      .

We were inspired by                                                                   to create it.

This living thing has                                                                                     .

This feature makes this product                                                                   .

Thank you.

 

 

 

Grammar for Communication

Focus

When a high-speed train like the Shinkansen enters a tunnel, quite a loud noise is made at the other end of the tunnel. 87.5

副詞的表現とその位置

 

<文頭の副詞的表現>+主語+<文中の副詞的表現>+動詞+α+<文尾の副詞的表現>

When I was young, I would often talk with my friends long into the night.

副詞的表現には,単語としての副詞のほか,副詞句,副詞節の形がある.

・副詞句:to tell you the truth, generally speaking, in my opinion, for two weeks, etc.

・副詞節:when I was young, if I remember correctly, as far as I’m concerned, etc.

 

▼副詞的表現は文頭,文中,文尾のいずれでも用いられる.文頭では状況設定の意味合いが強くなり,文尾では状況に関する情報の追加という意味合いが強くなる.文中で挿入的に使うと,とっさにことわりを入れるようなニュアンスになる.

1. You can stay in this room as long as you keep quiet.

2. Whether youLike it or not, you must do what I tell you.

cf. You must do what I tell you, like it or not.

cf. You must, like it or not, do what I tell you.

3. I went to my office by taxi yesterday because my car broke down.

 

▼単語としての副詞は,修飾する対象によって原則的な位置がある(very beautifulso fast, know him well).「否定」「頻度」の副詞は一般に文中で使い,「文修飾」の副詞は文頭で使われる.

4. Her smile always [ often / sometimes / seldom / never ] makes me happy.

5. Frankly, she didn’t tell me everything about it.(文全体を修飾)

cf. She didn’t tell me everything about it frankly.(動詞を修飾)

 

Task 以下は森鴎外の『舞姫』の英訳の抜粋です.主人公の太田豊太郎が留学先のドイツの自由な気風に触れ,それまでとは違う自分に目覚めつつある状況を回想しているくだりです.以下で使われている副詞的表現を指摘してみよう.

Now, however, at the age of twenty-five, perhaps because I had been exposed to the liberal ways of the university for some time, there grew within me a kind of uneasiness.

 

 

Structures and Expressions

① 過去分詞で始まる分詞構文(「~されて/~されると」と理由や状況・条件を表す)

  1. Designed to turn slowly in the breeze, it should be able to generate electricity even where winds are mild. 92.9
  2. Dressed in red, my sister looked very beautiful.

※過去分詞で始まる分詞構文は,being having been]を補って解釈できる.beingを補える分詞構文の応用形として,形容詞や名詞で始まる表現もある.

  1. Unable to carry out the task on her own, she asked us for help.
  2. One of eleven children, he was brought up in a large house.

 

Task 以下の状況に合うように,[  ]内の語句を使って,英語で表現してみよう.ただし動詞は適切な形に変えること.

  1. 状況 英語の本を読むことを勧めて.

     [ English, write, simple, in ], this book is easy to understand.

  1. 状況 なぜあいさつしてくれなかったのかと責められて.

     [ distance, from, see, a ], you looked like a total stranger.

  1. 状況 彼は言ったことはやる人だと太鼓判を押す.

     [ word, man, his, of, a ], he will never let you down.

 

② さまざまな不定詞(not to do / to have done / for A to do

  1. Biomimetics aims not to imitate nature exactly. 93.13
  2. He is said to have been a strong boxer in his twenties.
  3. It is difficult for a writer to be objective about his own writing.

 

Task 以下の状況に合うように,[  ]内の語句を使って,英語で表現してみよう.

  1. 状況 美しい演技を見て絶賛する.

     It is [ be, not, with, to, impressed, hard ] a beautiful performance like that.

  1. 状況 女性が人ごみを通り抜けるのを助けようとして.

     Could you [ her, way, to, for, pass, make ]?

  1. 状況 妹の将来の夢について語っていて.

     She [ to, lost, in, have, seems, interest ] becoming a dancer.

 

 

 

和訳

Part 1

時速300キロの速度を達成した日本で初めての列車,500系新幹線は,その長く,とがった先頭部によって容易に識別されます.その独特のデザインは,ある種の鳥から着想を得ました.

新幹線のような高速の列車がトンネルに入るとき,トンネルの反対側の出口でかなり大きな騒音が発生します.その騒音を減らすために,500系の設計者たちは,カワセミのくちばしからヒントを得ました.カワセミは,魚を捕まえるために時速約100キロで水に飛び込みますが,ほとんど水しぶきを立てません.これは,カワセミのくちばしが水の抵抗を減らすように形作られているからです.カワセミのくちばしをモデルに500系の先頭部を作ることによって,500系の設計者たちは,500系がトンネルに進入するときに発生させる空気抵抗と騒音を減らすことに成功しました.

今日,世界中の科学者や技術者たちが,バイオミメティクスの可能性に興味をかき立てられています.バイオミメティクスとは,人間に役立つ技術をデザインするために生物の構造や機能を研究することです.バイオミメティクス(biomimetics)は,「生命」を意味するbio-と「模倣する」を意味するmimeticに由来し,生物を模倣することを意味します.その分野の専門家,アンドリュー・パーカーは,自然界のことを「すばらしいデザインの宝庫」と表現しています.それぞれの種は,何百万年もの進化の歴史の間に,生存に最適な形態を獲得してきました.私たちには,進化が作り出した巧みなデザインから学ぶべきことがたくさんあります.

 

Part 2

生物から技術を取り入れるという考えは,古くから存在しています.500年以上前に,レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチは,トンボが空中で停止しているのを見て,ヘリコプターの設計図を描きました.19世紀には,オットー・リリエンタールという名のドイツ人技師が,コウノトリの観察から着想を得た一連のグライダーを作り,テスト飛行を行いました.

ナノテクノロジー,すなわちたったの100万分の1ミリメートルレベルの大きさでの工学の,近年の進歩により,現在,生物の微小な構造を模倣することが可能になっています.一つの例が,ハスの葉を模倣した素材の開発です.ハスの葉は水をはじき,実際,自らをきれいにします.ハスの葉はどのようにしてそれを行うのでしょうか.ハス葉の表面には,大きさ5~15マイクロメートルの非常に小さい突起がびっしりとついています.これらの突起が,どんな水滴も捕らえ,水滴が汚れを運びながら転がり落ちるのを可能にします.そのため,ハスの葉はいつもきれいなのです.このメカニズムは,撥水性のある塗料を開発するのに使われました.その塗料を壁に塗ると,壁の表面に何百万もの非常に小さい突起ができ,それらの突起が何年にもわたって壁をきれいに保つのに役立ちます.同様にハスの葉は,傘に使われる撥水性の高い生地の開発にヒントを与えました.

 

Part 3

バイオミメティクスはまた,エネルギー問題の解決策を見つけることにも役立っています.技術者たちは,シロアリの巣の換気システムを模倣することによって,冷房の必要性を減らす,エネルギー効率のよい建物のデザインを考え出しました.アフリカ原産の,ある種のシロアリは,高さ5メートルになる塚(アリ塚)を作ります.外では気温が日中には50度にも達することがあり,夜には零下に下がることもあります.しかし,アリ塚の内部では,温度が常に30度前後に保たれています.その秘密はアリ塚の構造にあります.アリ塚には,空気の通り道がたくさんあり,この通り道が空気の循環を可能にすることによって,アリ塚内部の温度を一定のレベルに保っているのです.アフリカの国,ジンバブエでは,そのデザインをまねてショッピングセンターが建設されました.その建物では,冷房に必要な電力が通常の10分の1ですみます.

ぎざぎざの前縁部を持つ,ザトウクジラのヒレの独特な形状は,風力発電に応用できる可能性を秘めています.ジェット機の翼のように高速を出すためにデザインされた構造の場合,抵抗を減らすために,翼の前縁部は滑らかでなければなりません.しかし,ザトウクジラはゆっくりと泳ぎ,そのような低速においては,ぎざぎざの前縁部が実際に(水の)抵抗を減らすのです.現在,ザトウクジラのぎざぎざのヒレを模倣して,風力タービン(風力発電機)の回転翼が開発されているところです.その回転翼は,そよ風の中でゆっくりと回るようにデザインされているため,風が弱いところでも電気を起こすことができるはずです.さらに,その回転翼は回るときにほとんど騒音を出さないので,近隣の住民は騒音に悩まされることはないでしょう.

 

 

Part 4

自然界に存在する構造やシステムは,私たちに無数のアイデアを提供してくれます.しかし,その構造やシステムがあまりに複雑なため,それらを模倣することにあまり意味がないこともよくあります.

例えば,カタツムリの殻を例にとってみましょう.カタツムリの殻は,いつも非常にきれいです.なぜでしょう.殻の表面は,幅がわずか数百ナノメートルの極細の溝で覆われており,それらの溝には常に水がたまっています.殻の上についているどんな汚れも,実は水の上に浮いているだけなのです.雨が降ると,その汚れは水とともに洗い落とされます.この構造を複製すれば,汚れのつかない素材を開発できるかもしれません.しかし,素材の表面に顕微鏡でしか見えないほど微細な溝を掘ることは,それをする価値がある以上のエネルギーを必要とするでしょう.バイオミメティクスは,自然を正確に模倣することではなく,自然の中に,エネルギー効率のよい,環境にやさしい技術を開発するためのヒントを探すことを目標としているのです.

人間は現代文明の驚異を生み出すために膨大なエネルギーと資源を費やしてきましたが,その結果,地球に大きな被害をもたらしました.天然資源には限りがあり,環境へのさらなる被害は避けなければなりません.バイオミメティクスは,これらの問題を解決するのに役立つさまざまなヒントを私たちに提供してくれます.この地球で生き続けるために,私たちは今,これまで以上に,自然から謙虚に学ぶ姿勢でいなければなりません.

スタディサプリ
スタディサプリ高校講座・大学受験講座」は、リクルートが提供するオンライン学習サービスです。通信環境さえあれば、いつでもどこでも全国トップクラスのプロ講師陣の授業を受けることができます。定期テスト対策から大学受験対策まで、幅広いラインナップをご用意。その上全授業が月額980円(税抜)~で見放題!
5教科18科目、4万本を超える授業動画がPC、スマホで見放題。

小学校〜高校の授業から、資格対策講座まで、学年をまたいで色々な授業動画を受けることができます。授業のレベルもスタンダードレベル、ハイレベル、トップレベルと分かれており、自分の学力に合った学習が可能。大学受験生向けにはセンター試験対策講座志望校対策講座小論文対策講座も揃っています。

・講師こだわりのオリジナルテキストも無料でダウンロード可能。別途冊子購入もできます。

センター問題集が過去7年分、無料でダウンロード可能。

上記全部揃って、月額980円(税抜)。年会費や初期費用も無料。圧倒的な低価格で質の高い学習を提供します。無料体験可能。

アプリの提供もあります。アプリでは動画をダウンロードすることができるため、通信環境がない場所でも授業動画を観ることができます。また授業動画の速度調整が可能。わかるところは倍速で観て、わからないところはゆっくり観れる。一部コンテンツは無料会員登録で利用できますが、有料会員登録を行うことで、
圧倒的にわかりやすい良質な講義動画が「すべて」見ることが出来ます。

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