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Lesson 9

 

The Underground Reporters

 

第二次世界大戦中,ナチス・ドイツはヨーロッパの国々を占領し,各地のユダヤ人を迫害しました.1939年,チェコスロバキア西部の町ブデホヴィーツェにもドイツ軍が侵攻します.町の公園や映画館,商店は次々にユダヤ人立ち入り禁止とされ,子供たちは学校に通うことも禁じられました.日増しに迫害が強まるなか,ユダヤ人の子供たちが自分たちの誇りと自由を守るためにしたことは,どのようなことだったのでしょうか.

 

The last of human freedoms the

ability to choose one’s attitude in a

given set of circumstances.

Viktor Frankl

 

1

August 1940

It was summer, and every day Jewish boys and girls in the town of Budejovice would play games at the playground by the river, the only place where they were permitted to gather for fun.  One fifteen-year-old boy, Ruda, was frustrated by the Nazis’ laws restricting their freedom.  He hated quietly obeying all the unjust rules.  There must be something they could do to get around them.

“Of course!  Why don’t we start a newspaper?”

That, he thought, would bring the Jewish children and young adults together and let them use their creativity and imagination.

Ruda sat down at the typewriter and started writing:

 

I want to say a few words about those who come every day to our playground, and add a few witty remarks about them.

Karel is the terror of the playground. He shouts and threatens everyone.

Irena has become like a mother to all the girls, both younger and older.

 

When Ruda completed typing his list of comments about everyone, he named the paper Klepy ― Czech for “gossip.”  It was only three pages long, with a total run of one copy, but everyone was so excited they wanted to get their hands on it.  “You have to produce another issue,” said one of the children.

Ruda put together a reporting team consisting of several friends, and they discussed what to include in the next issue.

“The paper has to have a sports section,” suggested one of the reporters.  “Everyone would be interested in reading about the soccer matches here.”

“Maybe poetry,” added another.

The second issue was an even greater success than the first.  Everyone admired the poetry and was thrilled by the sports articles.  Now even the adults wanted to read Klepy, so it ended up being circulated to the entire Jewish community.

 

2

Autumn 1940

It was becoming more and more unsafe for Jews to walk on the streets of the town.  Many were arrested.  Although Ruda could not help but be conscious of the danger all around, he believed in Klepy as a source of courage.

One day he made an appeal to the readers.  “We can keep Klepy going only if each one of you becomes a reporter.  Write anything you like.  Write something about your family or a boy or girl you like.  Or draw pictures or cartoons.

“Every day,” Ruda continued, “there are new rules about what we can and can’t do.  Well, the one thing that can’t be restricted is our minds.  No one can forbid us to think.  So I’m asking you to use your minds and write something.  I know that each of you must have something important to say.”

The response was overwhelming.  All the young people eagerly contributed articles, poems, and drawings.  Their hearts swelled with pride when they saw their own work in the newspaper.  They wrote to reclaim their freedom, despite their constant fear.  One poem described a group of Jewish men doing forced labor.

 

AFTER A SNOWSTORM IN JANUARY

Today the Jews went to work,

Looking tired, they cleared the snow, …

Some were ashamed to be seen.

Take pride in your work,

So that we can show them our strength!

 

Klepy united the hearts of all the town’s Jews.  It gave them dignity and a purpose: to fight for their freedom.

 

3

September 1941

Conditions got worse and worse with each passing day.  The town’s Jews were now forbidden to enter almost all the streets and shops.  Even the children’s playground was closed.  A sinister rumor was spreading: all over Europe concentration camps were being set up to hold the Jewish population.

Ruda was determined to face the evil fate that threatened them all.  He had a meeting with the rest of the reporting team.  Ruda insisted that they should use Klepy as a means of speaking out against the Nazis.

“I disagree,” said Karli, one of the boys on the reporting team.  “If we openly talk about resisting the Nazis, there won’t be a newspaper at all.  We have to keep it light.”

“But don’t you see?” declared another boy, Reina.  “The paper itself is a form of resistance.  It almost doesn’t matter what we write.  Just the fact that we produce it and circulate it is what’s most important.”

The discussion reached no conclusion.  But one thing was certain: the world had become a nasty place.  The only thing left to look forward to in town was Klepy.

Keeping the newspaper going, however, proved impossible.  Things were becoming scarcer by the day.  There was not even anywhere left to buy the paper needed to produce Klepy.  One day Reina arrived at Ruda’s home to drop off the twenty-second issue.

“We can’t do it anymore,” he said.  “It’s no longer safe for us to meet, and it’s impossible to gather information for articles.”

Ruda took the copy with a sinking heart.  It turned out to be the last issue.  What saddened him most was losing the freedom that Klepy had represented.

“If anything happens to us, this collection must stay together,” said Reina.

Ruda nodded and placed the last issue on the top of the pile.

 

4

February 1942

In early February 1942, the news arrived that all the Jewish people in the town most feared: they were all to be sent to a concentration camp.

Ruda too had to get ready to leave.  As he was packing, he wondered where he could keep the set of twenty-two newspapers safe during his absence.  He could not take them with him, since he had no idea what was going to happen to him.  If he left them behind in the house, on the other hand, they might be destroyed.  Klepy was more than just a newspaper.  It was a precious record of the lives and dreams of the many Jewish boys and girls who had been involved in its creation.  By writing it they had tried to brighten the gloom around them and keep alive the hope that one day peace would return.

In the end, he thought of a good place to store the newspapers.  He could only pray that they would make it safely through the war.  Saying farewell to Klepy was like saying farewell to a dear friend.

In April the town’s entire Jewish population was sent by train to a concentration camp.

More than six million Jews had lost their lives by the end of the war in 1945.  Almost none of the children and young adults from Budejovice survived.  As for Ruda, one day he was working in the camp when a German soldier ordered him to hand over the coat he was wearing.  He refused.  He was shot on the spot, having fought for his rights and his dignity until his last breath.

All twenty-two issues of Klepy came safely through the war.  Ruda had given them to a Christian friend for safekeeping, and after the war they were returned to Ruda’s sister, who had miraculously survived.  Klepy is now on display at the Jewish Museum in Prague.

 

 

 

p.114

A sports column from Klepy

 

Covers from Klepy

 

Ruda as the fearless leader, from Klepy

 

p.115

Get the Picture

1.

What idea did Ruda think of to get around the unjust rules?

 

2.

What did Ruda think starting a newspaper would do?

 

get around   ex. We will be able to get around most of these problems.

bring together  ex. The war brought our community together.

 

the Nazis「ナチス,ナチ党」ヒトラーを党首とし,1933年にドイツの政権を握った独裁的政党.

 

reporter     Jewish     Budejovice    playground

permit     Ruda     frustrate     restrict     obey

unjust     creativity     imagination

typewriter     witty    remark

 

p.116

Get the Picture

3.

How did everyone like the first issue of Klepy?

 

The first issue of Klepy

Ruda (top), and the original reporting team

 

get one’s hands on  ex. I need to get my hands on a good smartphone.

put together   ex. It only took me two weeks to put together a strong soccer team.

 

Karel    terror    threaten     Irena     Klepy

Czech    gossip     issue

 

p.117

Get the Picture

4.

How was the second issue different from the first one?

 

WINDOW 1

The Nazi German Invasion of Czechoslovakia

In 1939, under the control of Adolf Hitler, Nazi Germany invaded and occupied Czechoslovakia, which is now two countries, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. The Nazis persecuted the Jews in Czechoslovakia, including around 1,000 people living in the town of Budejovice.

 

Czechoslovakia in 1933 before World War II

 

end up doing  ex. They ended up losing the final game.

 

discuss     section     poetry

 

p.118

Get the Picture

5.

What did Ruda ask the readers to do?

6.

Why did Ruda ask the readers to use their minds and write something?

 

be conscious of   ex. He is conscious of the need to exercise.

believe in   ex. I believe in the power of music.

make an appeal to   ex. They made an appeal to the public to help the earthquake victims.

only if   ex. I will go to the party only if you go.

 

autumn   Jew     conscious     appeal    reader

cartoon     forbid

 

p.119

Children from Budejovice.  They were all “underground reporters” for Klepy.

 

Get the Picture

7.

How did the readers respond to Ruda’s appeal?

 

8.

How did Klepy help the town’s Jews?

 

response    overwhelming     eagerly

contribute    drawing    swell    reclaim

despite     snowstorm     ashamed     unite

 

p.120

Get the Picture

9.

What did Ruda insist they should do?

 

The photos of children’s faces were added to Karli’s original illustrations.

 

with each passing day  ex. With each passing day she grew stronger.

speak out against   ex. People are afraid to speak out against the government.

 

concentration camp「強制収容所」政治的理由などで,裁判なしに市民を強制的に収容,拘禁する施設.

 

sinister     rumor     concentration     evil

insist     disagree     Karli

 

p.121

Get the Picture

10.

What did Reina think was most important?  And why?

 

11.

Why weren’t they able to produce Klepy anymore?

 

look forward to   ex. He is really looking forward to the weekend.

drop off   ex. I’ll drop off the package at the post office today.

 

resist    declare     Reina    discussion

conclusion    nasty     prove    scarce

anymore

 

p.122

Get the Picture

12.

What made Ruda feel sad?

 

13.

What did Klepy mean to the Jewish boys and girls?

 

leave behind  ex. There was a fire at our house and we had to leave the family albums behind.

 

sink     sadden     represent    collection     nod

pile    pack     absence

 

p.123

Get the Picture

14.

What did Ruda finally decide to do with Klepy?

 

WINDOW 2

Concentration Camps

At first, the Jewish people in Budejovice were sent to a concentration camp in Terezin, a town in Czechoslovakia.  Later, the majority of those people were sent to a concentration camp in Poland called Auschwitz.  At Auschwitz the Nazis built huge gas chambers to carry out mass murder of the Jews.  It is estimated that about 1.5 million people at this concentration camp lost their lives from infectious diseases, starvation, and unbelievable acts of violence by the Nazis.

 

Auschwitz concentration camp

 

be involved in   ex. Many people were involved in the project.

make it safely through   ex.  We made it safely through the snowstorm.

 

creation     gloom     pray     farewell

 

p.124

Get the Picture

15.

Why was Ruda shot by the German soldier?

 

16.

How did the issues of Klepy come safely through the war?

 

hand over   ex. They handed over their guns to the police.

on the spot  ex. The protesters were arrested on the spot.

one’s last breath  ex. She breathed her last breath.

 

Jewish Museum「ユダヤ博物館」ユダヤ人の歴史,生活,文化などを展示する博物館.

Prague「プラハ」チェコ共和国の首都.

 

shoot    spot     Christian     safekeeping

miraculously     display     Prague

 

 

 

Workshop

 

Summary Chart

本文の内容に合うように,表を完成しなさい.

 

Part 1    A newspaper for the Jewish young people

The birth of Klepy

Ruda wanted to get around the Nazis’ (  ) and started a (  ).  The first issue had only three pages but it (  ) the Jewish boys and girls.

The second issue

The second issue of Klepy included sports articles and (  ).  Klepy began to be (  ) to the entire Jewish (  ).

 

Part 2    Klepy as a symbol of freedom

Ruda’s appeal to the readers

Ruda asked the readers to (  ) something because he thought their (  ) could never be (  ).

Klepy’s effect on the community

Klepy (  ) the hearts of all the town’s Jews, gave them (  ), and encouraged them to (  ) for their freedom.

 

Part 3    The last days of Klepy

The discussion about how to use Klepy

Ruda insisted that they should use Klepy to (  ) (  ) against the Nazis.  Karli wanted to keep the articles (  ).  Reina said it almost didn’t matter what they wrote and that the paper itself was a form of (  ).

The end of Klepy

Keeping Klepy going became (  ) because it was difficult to get the (  ) as well as (  ) for articles.

 

Part 4    Being sent to a concentration camp

Hiding Klepy

Ruda decided to (  ) Klepy, a precious (  ) of the young people’s lives and dreams, in a safe place.

The fate of Ruda and Klepy

Ruda was (  ) by a soldier as he (  ) to hand over his coat.  All the issues of Klepy survived the war because his Christian friend (  ) them safely.

 

 

 

LISTEN & REACT

Henryと麻子の対話を聞いて質問に答えなさい.12は最も適切な答えを選び,3は英語で答えなさい.

 

  1. What did Ruda ask the children to do?

(a) To make comments after reading Klepy.

(b) To write about anything they liked or to draw pictures for Klepy.

(c) To write articles speaking out against the Nazis for Klepy.

  1. Why couldn’t they continue to publish Klepy?

(a) The Nazis prohibited them from publishing it.

(b) They were sent to concentration camps.

(c) It became difficult to gather information for articles and buy paper to produce Klepy.

  1. What was it like for Ruda to say farewell to Klepy?

                                       

 

 

MAKE YOUR COMMENTS

新聞記事を書く

 

① 以下の英文は,アメリカの高校生が書いた学校新聞の記事です.記事を読んでみよう.

The Record, Thursday, December 8, 2011

Lead   Headline   Body

HHS Band Wins States

The Hialeah High School (HHS) Marching Band walked out of the Florida Marching Band Coalition as the 2011 Class 1A State Champion.  The success for the band marks their first win in the history of Hialeah High.

After three years of struggles to put together the award-winning performance, the band showed the judges all their hard work.  As the band performed, Drum Major Guillermo Torres felt that the band would be making history that day.  “The amount of effort put into the show was a combination of what each member put forth and what we wanted to offer to the state,” said Torres.

Their theme was a united tribe of Native Americans, and included a diverse number of movements, flag work, rifle tossing, and even dance moves from each member to match the theme.  “I couldn’t be prouder of my team.  We united to finally bring a championship title back to our school.  All our work has paid off and we finally have a legacy to leave for future band members,” said senior Derek McRea.

 

V coalition 連合  Drum Majorマーチングバンドのリーダー

 

② 学校行事や部活動でのクラスメートの活躍について,英語でインタビューしてみよう.

質問例

  1. What was the result of the tournament / contest / competition?
  2. How do you feel about the result?
  3. What is your goal at the next tournament / contest / competition?

                                       

                                       

                                       

 

③ ②でインタビューした内容をもとに,英文記事を書いてみよう.

記事を書くときのポイント

  1. 記事の見出し(Headline)は簡潔に書く.
  2. 最初のパラグラフ(Lead)は,記事の概要を簡潔に伝える働きをする.
  3. 続くパラグラフ(Body)では,より詳しい情報を記述する.

 

Kirihara High School News

Sunday, January 25, 2015

Headline                                                                                                        

Lead                                                                                                              

                                                                                                                      

Body                                                                                                              

                                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                      

 

 

Grammar for Communication

Structures and Expressions

① 省略 ― 語句の重複を避けるための省略と慣用的な省略

  1. The second issue was an even greater success than the first. 117.7
  2. Some of the students spoke French, and others German.
  3. I was surprised at the news, while Paul was not.
  4. She left the window open, though her mother told her not to.
  5. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
  6. We can change the date of the meeting, if necessary.

 

Task 以下の英文の省略できる部分に下線を引きなさい.

  1. My sister did not go to see a doctor even though she needed to do so.
  2. Some forms of cancer can be cured if they are discovered in time.
  3. If you are happy with the idea, we will do it; if you are not happy with the idea, we will not do it.

 

suggest [recommend, demand, etc.]that+主語+ (should) 動詞の原形

  1. I suggested that he (should) see the doctor.
  2. Ruda insisted that they (should) use Klepy as a means of speaking out against the Nazis. 120.10
  3. They proposed that the rule (should) be changed.
  4. I recommend that you (should) buy this kind of computer. It is more useful.
  5. It is necessary that effective measures (should) be taken to deal with the situation.

※「要求」「提案」などの意味を表す動詞に続くthat節の中でshouldを用いることがある.ただし,単に「動詞の原形」を使うのがより一般的.「必要」「当然」などの意味合いの形容詞(important, necessaryなど)に続くthat節でも同様の構文が可能.

 

Task 以下の状況に合うように,( )に入る動詞を選択肢から選び,適切な形にして,英語で表現してみよう.同じ語を2回使ってもよい.

  1. 状況 政府に新たなエネルギー源の開発のために行動を起こすよう要求した.

     He (  ) that the government (  ) some action to develop new sources of energy.

  1. 状況 国際援助にもっとお金を使うべきだと主張した.

     She (  ) that more money (  ) on international aid.

  1. 状況 頭痛に効く薬を薦める.

     I (  ) that you (  ) this medicine if you have a headache.

  1. 状況 友だちとけんかして仲直りできずにいる人に提案する.

     A: I had a fight with Hiroko the other day.  We haven’t talked for days.

     B: Well, I (  ) you (  ) to her first.

選択肢 [ speak, demand, take, insist, spend, suggest, recommend ]

 

beto do(「行為と向き合う」状態にあるという意味を表す)

  1. They were all to be sent to a concentration camp.(予定) → 122.10
  2. Students are to clean their classroom after school.(義務)
  3. You should work harder if you are to succeed. (意図・必要)
  4. Happiness is not to be bought with money.(可能)
  5. I have no idea what is to happen to us.(運命)

 

Task 以下の状況に合うように,[  ]内の語句を使って,英語で表現してみよう.

  1. 状況 首相の公式日程について.

     The Prime Minister [ next month, is, visit, China, to ].

  1. 状況 私が戻ってくるまで,この部屋にいること.

     You [ are, until, stay, to, in this room, I return ].

  1. 状況 その出会いが後の人生を決めた.

     Then I met a man, [ was, my husband, to, who, become ].

  1. 状況 通りには誰一人見当たらなかった.

     No one [ on the streets, to, seen, was, be ].

 

 

和訳

Part 1

1940年8月

その夏,ブデホヴィーツェの町に住むユダヤ人の少年少女は,毎日川沿いの遊び場で遊んでいました.そこは,彼らが集まって遊ぶのを許された唯一の場所だったのです.15歳の少年,ルーダは,自分たちの自由を制限するナチスの法律に,いら立ちを感じていました.彼は,すべての不当な規則に黙って従うのは嫌でした.それらの規則の網をかいくぐるために,何かできることがあるはずです.

「そうだ! 新聞を始めたらどうだろう」

そうすれば,ユダヤ人の子どもたちや若者たちが一つにまとまり,創造性と想像力を働かせることができると,彼は考えました.

ルーダはタイプライターの前に座り,書き始めました.

 

毎日私たちの遊び場に来る人たちについて簡単に述べて,彼らに関する気の利いた感想を二,三,付け加えたいと思う.

 

・カレルはこの遊び場きっての悪童だ.大声を出してみんなを脅かす.

  • イリーナは年下も年上も含めて女の子たちみんなのお母さんみたいになっている.

 

ルーダは全員についてのコメントの一覧をタイプし終わると,その新聞を『クレピー』と名づけました.チェコ語で「ゴシップ(うわさ話)」という意味です.たった3ページの長さで,部数は1部だけでしたが,みんなとても興奮し,手に取りたがりました.「次の号も作ってくれなくちゃ」と子どもたちの一人が言いました.

ルーダは数人の友だちから成る取材チームを結成し,次の号に何を載せるべきか話し合いました.

「スポーツ欄がなくてはいけないね」と,記者の一人が提案しました.「ここでのサッカーの試合について,みんな読みたいんじゃないかな」

「詩もいいかもしれない」と,別の一人が付け加えました.

第2号は,創刊号よりもさらに大きな成功を収めました.みんなが詩を賞賛し,スポーツ記事にわくわくしました.今や大人たちでさえ『クレピー』を読みたがったので,しまいには『クレピー』は町のユダヤ人社会全体に回覧されることになりました.

 

 

Part 2

1940年秋

ユダヤ人が町の通りを歩くことはますます危険になってきました.たくさんの人が逮捕されました.ルーダはいたるところで危険を感じずにはいられませんでしたが,『クレピー』が勇気を与える源であることは信じていました.

ある日,彼は読者たちに呼びかけました.「君たち一人一人が記者になってくれて初めて,ぼくたちは『クレピー』を続けることができる.何でも好きなことを書いてくれていい.家族や,好きな男の子や女の子のことを書いてもいい.あるいは,絵や漫画を描いてもいい」

「毎日」とルーダは続けました.「ぼくたちがしていいこと,してはいけないことについて新しい規則ができている.でも,ただ一つ制限できないもの,それはぼくたちの心[思考]だ.ぼくたちが考えるのを禁じることは,誰にもできない.だから,どうか頭を働かせて何かを書いてほしい.君たち一人一人に,何かしら伝えるべき大切なことがあるはずだ」

反響はたいへんなものでした.若者たちの誰もがみな,熱心に記事や詩や絵を投稿しました.彼らは,新聞に掲載された自分の作品を見ると,誇らしさで胸がいっぱいになりました.彼らは絶えず恐れを感じながらも,自分たちの自由を取り戻すために書きました.ある詩は,強制労働に従事するユダヤ人の男たちを描いていました.

「1月の吹雪の後に」

今日,ユダヤ人は仕事に出かけた,

疲れた様子で雪かきをした…

人に見られるのを恥じる者もいた.

仕事に誇りを持て,

やつらにぼくらの強さを見せつけられるように!

『クレピー』は町のユダヤ人みんなの心を一つにしました.『クレピー』は彼らに尊厳と,自由のために闘うという目的を与えたのです.

 

 

Part 3

1941年9月

状況は日を追うごとに悪化していきました.今や町のユダヤ人は,ほとんどすべての通りや店に立ち入ることを禁じられました.子どもたちの遊び場さえも閉鎖されてしまいました.ある不穏な噂が広がっていました.すべてのユダヤ人を収容するため,ヨーロッパ中に強制収容所が建設されているというのです.

ルーダは,自分たちみんなを脅かす不幸な運命に立ち向かう決意をしました.彼は取材チームのほかのメンバーと会議を開きました.ルーダは,『クレピー』をナチスに対してはっきりと抗議の声を上げる手段として利用するよう要求しました.

「ぼくは反対だな」と取材チームの少年たちの一人であるカーリが言いました.「ナチスへの抵抗を公言したら,新聞そのものがなくなってしまう.軽い内容にしておかなきゃだめだ」

「わからないかい?」 別の少年,レイナがきっぱりと言いました.「新聞そのものが抵抗の形なんだよ.ぼくたちが何を書くかはほとんど問題じゃない.新聞を作って回覧しているという事実こそが,一番大事なことなんだ」

この議論に結論は出ませんでした.しかし,一つだけ確かなことがありました.世の中がひどくいやな場所になってしまったということです.町に残された,人々が楽しみにしている唯一のものが『クレピー』でした.

しかし,新聞を続けるのは不可能であることがわかりました.日に日に物が不足していました.『クレピー』を作るのに必要な紙を買えるところさえ残されていなかったのです.ある日,レイナが『クレピー』の第22号を届けに,ルーダの家に来ました.

「もうこれ以上は無理だな」と彼は言いました.「もはやぼくたちが集まるのは安全ではないし,記事にする情報を集めるのも不可能だ」

ルーダは沈んだ気持ちでその新聞を受け取りました.結局それが最終号になってしまったのです.彼が何よりも悲しかったのは,『クレピー』が象徴していた自由を失ったことでした.

「ぼくたちに何かあっても,この『クレピー』のセットがばらばらにならないようにしないと」とレイナが言いました.

ルーダはうなずき,積み重ねられた『クレピー』の一番上に最終号を置きました.

 

Part 4

1942年2月

1942年2月初め,町のすべてのユダヤ人が最も恐れていた知らせが届きました.全員が強制収容所へ送られることになったのです.

ルーダも出発の準備をしなければなりませんでした.彼は荷物をまとめながら,22号までの新聞一式を,自分がいない間,無事に保管しておける場所はどこだろうと考えました.この先自分に何が起きるかわからないのだから,自分と一緒に持っていくことはできませんでした.他方で,家に残していけば処分されるかもしれません.『クレピー』はただの新聞ではありませんでした.新聞作りに関わったたくさんのユダヤ人の少年少女の,生活や夢の貴重な記録でした.彼らは『クレピー』を書くことで,自分たちを取り巻く憂鬱な状況を明るくしよう,いつか平和が戻ってくるという希望を持ち続けようとしたのです.

とうとう彼は,新聞を保管するのによい場所を思いつきました.新聞が無事に戦争を乗り切ることを祈るばかりでした.『クレピー』に別れを告げるのは,親友に別れを告げるようなものでした.

4月,町のユダヤ人全員が列車で強制収容所へ送られました.

1945年の終戦までに600万人以上のユダヤ人が命を落としました.ブデホヴィーツェの子どもや若者たちも,ほとんどが生き延びられませんでした.ルーダはというと,ある日,収容所で働いている最中に,着ているコートを渡すようドイツ兵に命令されました.彼はそれを拒みました.彼は最期まで自分の権利と尊厳のために闘って,その場で射殺されたのです.

『クレピー』全22号は,無事に戦争を切り抜けました.ルーダは,保管のためにキリスト教徒の友人にそれらを託していたのです.そして戦後,『クレピー』は,奇跡的に生き延びたルーダの姉に返却されました.『クレピー』は今,プラハのユダヤ博物館で展示されています.

 

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