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本文

1  What is time? The answer to this question varies from society to society. Time can be flexible in some cultures but very strict in others. In fact, the way members of a culture understand and use time shows their society’s priorities and even their own world view.

 

2  Modern day Japanese have been raised in a time-conscious society. One researcher claims that Japan is one of the fastest-paced countries based on three things: walking speed on city streets, the speed at which office workers meet a request, and the accuracy of public clocks. When Japanese people meet with others for business or in private, arriving five minutes early is considered normal. If a train arrives even one minute behind schedule, Japanese train companies announce their apologies. This Japanese sense of time sometimes surprises people from other countries.

 

3  Most cultures around the world now have watches and calendars, uniting the majority of the globe in the same general rhythm of time. But that does not mean that we all march to the same beat. In Switzerland, if you are invited to dinner at 8:00, you should visit the house at five minutes to 8:00. If you show up ninety seconds late for an appointment in Berlin, it is very rude to the other party. In some countries, however, the idea that a person is ruled by the clock is ridiculous. That slight lateness in Berlin probably will not be noticed in Brazil. In Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, you may wait for hours for an appointment. In Mexico, guests invited to a 6 p.m. social dinner may think nothing of showing up two or three hours later. In fact, it is wise to arrive at least an hour late for dinner in Mexico City, to avoid embarrassing an unprepared host. For Greeks, time can be easily changed. If you ask when you should return a rental car, most clerks would respond like this: “Whenever you like.” It is impossible to say which way of looking at time is correct. We generally prefer the familiar attitude of our native culture.

 

4  There are many theories as to why time does not fly at the same speed around the world. Climate, economics, and culture may play a role. One researcher says that as you get closer to the equator, the pace of life seems to slow down. Some economists find truth in the saying “Money is time; time is money.” Russia, where the popularity of punctuality is growing as private business expands, is a good example. “In the past, you were working for the government,” a Russian regional manager said. “Now a lot of people are working for themselves, and the standards are stricter.”

 

5  In another study, an anthropologist, Edward T. Hall, used the words “monochronic” and “polychronic” to describe how different societies view time. People in monochronic cultures, such as America and northern Europe, are task-oriented, Hall wrote. They do things in order, one at a time, starting with the most important and ending with the least. In this culture, tardiness may be viewed as an insult. Being late is like telling your host: “I had more important things to do than attend your party.”

 

6  Polychronic cultures, found in Mediterranean and many Latin American nations, are “oriented toward people, human relationships, and the family.” In this culture, following a schedule is far less important than catching up with friends and family. If a member from this culture met a friend on the way to an appointment, he/she would rather stop and talk with the friend than try to make it on time for the appointment.

 

7  Time can affect almost everything: catching trains and buses, shopping, meeting deadlines, and making appointments. Different perceptions of time, therefore, can lead to misunderstandings between people, or even damage relations between countries. You do not have to change the way you act, but knowing the background of different cultures and accepting each other’s point of view can help prevent much of the frustration and help make better friendships with people from other cultures.

 

 

スポンサーリンク

Comprehension

  1. What is the main idea of the text?
  2. Japanese people have a strict sense of time, which sometimes surprises foreigners.
  3. People in different cultures recognize time in different ways.
  4. Becoming aware of different time perceptions can prevent problems between European and Mediterranean cultures.

 

B.Complete the following table using the words in the box. Change the form of the words if necessary.

1 The concept of time (1.     ) from country to country.

2, 3 In some cultures people think it important to (2.     ) to time, but in others, they do not put much importance on it.

4 Many factors, such as climate, economics, and culture, (3.     ) a part in different perceptions of time.

5, 6 One anthropologist (4.     ) how each society views time differently; people in monochronic cultures are task-oriented, while those in polychronic cultures are people-oriented.

7 Being aware that people recognize time differently can (5.     ) trouble and (6.     ) understanding.

 

 

describe  keep  play  prevent  promote  vary

 

C.Write T for true or F for false for each statement.

  1. The way people think of time is influenced by their cultural and social backgrounds. (   )
  2. In some cultures, waiting for several hours for an appointment is not a problem. (   )
  3. If you are late for an appointment in Brazil, it is very rude to the other party. (   )
  4. In Russia, punctuality has become stricter after its economic system changed. (   )
  5. People in polychronic cultures often manage time based on tasks they have. (   )
  6. We should not follow the way other people view time especially when we are abroad. (   )
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和訳

時間に対する姿勢

 

[1]  時間とは何だろうか。この質問への答えは社会によって異なる。時間は,ある文化圏では融通がきくこともあるが,ある文化圏ではとても厳密なこともある。実際,ある文化圏の一員が時間を理解したり使ったりする仕方は,彼らの社会の優先事項や彼ら自身の世界観さえも表すのだ。

 

[2]  現代の日本人は時間を意識した社会で育てられる。日本は3つのことに基づいて,最もテンポの速い国の1つであると主張する研究者がいる。すなわち,都会の通りを歩く速度,会社員が要望に応じる速度,そして公共の場にある時計の正確さである。日本人が他の人と会うときは,仕事でもプライベートでも5分早めに着くことが標準的だと考えられている。もし電車が時刻表より1 分でも遅れて着くと,日本の鉄道会社はお詫びのアナウンスを流す。この日本人の時間の感覚は,外国から来た人々をときに驚かすこともある。

 

[3]  現在,世界中のほとんどの文化圏には時計とカレンダーがあり,世界の大多数を同一で共通の時間のリズムで結びつけている。しかしそれは,私たちすべてが同じ太鼓の拍子に合わせて行進することを意味しているわけではない。スイスで,もしあなたが8時の夕食に招待されたら,8時5分前にその家を訪れなければならない。もしベルリンで約束に90 秒遅れて現れたら,他の参加者にとても失礼なことになる。しかし,ある国々では,人が時計に支配されるという考えはばかげているのだ。あのベルリンのわずかな遅れは,ブラジルではたぶん気にもされないだろう。サウジアラビアの首都リヤドでは,あなたは約束のために何時間も待つかもしれない。メキシコでは,午後6 時の社交的な晩餐に招待された客は,2,3 時間遅れて現れることを,全く気にしないかもしれない。実際,メキシコ市では,準備ができていない主催者を困らせないように,少なくとも1 時間遅れて晩餐に着くのが賢明である。ギリシャ人にとっては,時間は簡単に変更できるものだ。もしあなたがいつレンタカーを返したらいいかと尋ねるなら,おそらくほとんどの店員がこのように答えるだろう。「いつでもお好きなときに」。時間を見るどの方法が正しいかと言うのは不可能である。私たちは一般的に,なじんでいる母国の文化の考え方を好むものだ。

 

[4]  時間がなぜ世界中で同じ速度で過ぎないのかについては,多くの仮説がある。気候,経済状態,文化が役割を担っているのかもしれない。ある研究者は,赤道に近づいていくにつれて生活のペースが遅くなるようだと言う。「金は時なり,時は金なり」ということわざに真実を見いだす経済学者もいる。ロシアがよい例で,民間の事業が拡大するにつれて時間厳守の人気が増大している。地方のあるロシア人経営者は「昔は政府のために働いていた」と言った。「現在では多くの人が自分のために働いているので,基準がより厳しくなっているのだ」。

 

[5]  また別の研究では,人類学者のエドワード T. ホールは,異なる社会が時間をどのように考えるかを述べるために,「モノクロニック」と「ポリクロニック」という言葉を用いた。アメリカと北ヨーロッパのようなモノクロニックな文化圏の人々は職務本位である,とホールは書いた。彼らは物事を1度に1つずつ順序正しく行い,最も重要なもので始めて最も重要ではないもので終わる。この文化では,遅刻は侮辱と見なされるかもしれない。遅れることは「あなたのパーティーに出席するよりも,もっと重要なすべきことがあったのです」と主催者に言うようなものである。

 

[6]  ポリクロニックな文化圏は地中海諸国と多くの中南米諸国に存在するが,「人々,人間関係,家族に関心が向けられて」いる。この文化圏では,予定に従うことは友達や家族と話をするよりもずっと重要ではないのだ。もしこの文化圏出身の一員が面会の約束に向かう途中で友達に会ったとしたら,約束の時間通りに着こうとするよりもむしろ立ち止まってその友達と話がしたいことだろう。

 

[7]  時間はほとんどすべてのものに影響を与えることがありえる。電車やバスに間に合うこと,買い物をすること,締め切り時間に間に合わせること,約束をすること。したがって,異なる時間についての認識のせいで,人々が誤解したり,国家間の関係が傷ついたりすることさえあるのだ。自分の行動の仕方を変える必要はないが,異なる文化圏の背景を知り,お互いの考え方を受け入れることによって,多くの欲求不満を防ぎ,他の文化圏出身の人々とよりよい友情を結ぶのに役立てることができるのである。

解答例

Comprehension

  1. What is the main idea of the text?
  2. Japanese people have a strict sense of time, which sometimes surprises foreigners.
  3. People in different cultures recognize time in different ways.
  4. Becoming aware of different time perceptions can prevent problems between European and Mediterranean cultures.

 

B.Complete the following table using the words in the box. Change the form of the words if necessary.

1 The concept of time (1. varies  ) from country to country.

2, 3 In some cultures people think it important to (2. keep  ) to time, but in others, they do not put much importance on it.

4 Many factors, such as climate, economics, and culture, (3. play  ) a part in different perceptions of time.

5, 6 One anthropologist (4. describes  ) how each society views time differently; people in monochronic cultures are task-oriented, while those in polychronic cultures are people-oriented.

7 Being aware that people recognize time differently can (5. prevent  ) trouble and

(6.  promote  ) understanding.

 

describe  keep  play  prevent  promote  vary

 

C.Write T for true or F for false for each statement.

  1. The way people think of time is influenced by their cultural and social backgrounds. ( T )
  2. In some cultures, waiting for several hours for an appointment is not a problem. ( T )
  3. If you are late for an appointment in Brazil, it is very rude to the other party. ( F )
  4. In Russia, punctuality has become stricter after its economic system changed. ( T )
  5. People in polychronic cultures often manage time based on tasks they have. ( F )

6. We should not follow the way other people view time especially when we are abroad. ( F )

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