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本文

1  Have you ever been to a store not intending to buy anything, only to come home with a whole bunch of goods? Believe it or not, the hard sell starts long before you hit the mall. Advertisers use everything from product placement in movies and TV shows to subliminal messaging to get us to buy their goods.

 

2  Already affected up by these messages, once you arrive at the mall, you are an easy target. There are confusing layouts designed to keep you in the shop for as long as possible, aromas that put you in a relaxing holiday mood and clothes that are simply wanting to be touched and tried on.

 

3  Mall and store designers map out the journey they want shoppers to take. For example, supermarkets place fruit and vegetables at the front and to the consumers’ left. This is to make people feel better about guiltier purchases they may make later―such as sweets, beverages, and other luxuries―and to draw them past as many goods as possible on their way to necessities.

 

4  Danish marketing researcher Martin Lindstrom spent three years and seven million dollars to find out about the brain’s “buy” switch with more than 2,000 volunteers from China, Japan, the U.S., Germany and Britain. He revealed that companies around the world are discovering that they would be better off not just making us see lots of logos, but appealing to our senses as well.

 

5  Our senses are incredibly important in helping us interpret the world around us, and in turn play an important role in our behavior. Of the five, smell is the most primal, the most deeply rooted. It is the only sense that bypasses the rational part of our brain, and brings back memories and strong feelings even when the smell is not real. When we smell something, our emotions and sense of well-being are stimulated. As a result, our response is instantaneous. With all other senses, you think before you respond, but with scent, your brain responds before you think.

 

6  This helps us understand why most modern supermarkets now have bakeries so close to the store entrance. Not only does the aroma of just-baked bread signal freshness and create powerful feelings of comfort, but store managers know that when you smell the aroma of bread and doughnuts you will get hungry―to the point where you just may discard your shopping list and start picking up food you had not planned on buying.

 

7  Although there is now little data on whether pleasing aromas increase sales, scent-marketing is coming to a store near you. In the U.S., some stores have introduced “aromatic billboards” which put out the smell of delicious steak or waffles to attract customers to nearby shops. In Japan, Matsuzakaya Department Store releases different scents into the air depending on the time of day; stimulating scents are released early in the day, while soothing scents are released later in the day. All are aimed at encouraging customers to spend as much time―and money―in the store as possible.

 

8  The potential of sensory marketing does not end here. Stores know quite well the senses are connected with each other; that sight can help you imagine touch and that the sense of touch increases a sense of belonging. Indeed, we like to stroke and run our fingers through the clothes we are considering before we buy them―kind of like a sensory test run. Why do you think those tables of clothing at GAP and UNIQLO stores are positioned where they are? To be looked at?

 

9  Of course not. They are there awaiting your fingers. This is why stores place piles of appealingly textured clothes at their entrances―they cry out to be handled and tried on, drawing you inside the store, where further temptation awaits. The sense of touch reminds you of the associations of a collaboration and connection between you and the product as you start your journey together, hand in hand. This will be more effective in winning your mind, your loyalty, and your dollars than you ever thought possible.

 

10  Even if you wonder why there are moments when you seem to lose control and end up on a shopping spree, do not worry. It may not be your fault―you just cannot resist the psychological force at work, from subliminal messages to sensory stimulants. Clever marketing strategies were at work to tap into your most primal urges.

 

 

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Comprehension

  1. What is the main idea of the text?
  2. Scent is the most primitive, deeply rooted sense so we can’t resist its temptation.
  3. Marketing strategies are so powerful that it is difficult to prevent them from stimulating us.
  4. The longer we stay in a store, the more money we spend at the store.

 

  1. Complete the following table using the words in the box. Change the form of the words if necessary.

1, 2, 3 There are various strategies at work to get us to buy products even though we do not (1.     ) to buy anything.

4 A researcher studied the brain’s “buy” (2.     ).

5,6,7 Supermarkets and other stores try to make customers make unplanned purchases by stimulating the sense of (3.     ).

8, 9 Clothes are piled at store entrances to be (4.     ) and tried on.

10 We are powerless against the marketing (5.     ) at work.

 

plan  smell  strategy  switch  touch

 

  1. Write T for true or F for false for each statement.
  2. Marketing strategies start when you get to a store. (   )
  3. The layout of goods at a supermarket is designed to keep us in the store as long as possible. (   )
  4. Many companies around the world today seem to use strategies to appeal to our senses. (   )
  5. Many supermarkets today put bakeries close to the entrance to make customers get hungry. (   )
  6. At a department store in Japan, they release stimulating scents in the morning to encourage the customers to spend as much time and money as possible. (   )
  7. Once you are drawn inside a store, you do not have to be worried about temptations any longer. (   )
  8. If you lose control and buy something that you have not intended to buy, it may be caused by marketing strategies. (   )
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和訳

人間購買行動学

 

[1] あなたは何も買うつもりがなくて店に行き,結局,とても多量の商品を抱えて帰宅してしまったことがあるだろうか。信じられないかもしれないが,あなたがショッピングモールに着くずっと前に,強引な販売が始まっているのである。広告主たちは私たちに製品を買わせるために,映画やテレビ番組の中に製品を登場させることから潜在意識に訴えるメッセージまで,あらゆるものを使う。

 

[2]  あなたはすでにこれらのメッセージにすっかり影響されているので,いったんショッピングモールに着くと,あなたはたやすい標的となる。できるだけ長い間店内に引き留めるために計画された,混乱させるようなレイアウトや,くつろいだ休日気分にする香りや,ぜひとも手に触れて試着してもらいたがっている衣服がある。

 

[3] ショッピングモールや店舗の設計者は,買い物客に進んでもらいたい道のりの計画を立てる。例えばスーパーマーケットでは,店舗の最前部,消費者の左側に果物や野菜を置く。これは,人々が後になってするかもしれない,より後ろめたい気がする甘い物,飲み物,その他の嗜好品のような購入品に関して,より後ろめたくない気分にさせ,また必需品のところに行く途中で,できるだけ多くの商品のそばを通り過ぎさせるためである。

 

[4]  デンマーク人のマーケティング研究者マーティン・リンドストロムは,中国・日本・アメリカ・ドイツ・イギリスの2千人以上のボランティアを使って,脳の「買い」スイッチについて調べるために3年と700万ドルを費やした。彼が明らかにしたのは,世界中の会社は,私たちにたくさんのロゴを見させるだけでなく,さらに感覚に訴えるほうがよいことを発見しつつあるということである。

 

[5]  私たちの感覚は周囲の世界を解釈する助けとなる点で非常に重要であり,その結果,私たちの行動に重要な役割を果たす。五感の中では,嗅覚が最も原始的であり,最も深く根づいている。それは脳の理性的な部分を迂回し,臭いが本物ではないときでさえ,思い出や強い感情を呼び覚ます唯一の感覚である。私たちが何かにおいをかぐとき,感情や幸福感が刺激される。その結果として,反応は瞬間的である。他のすべての感覚に関しては,反応する前に考えるのだが,臭いに関しては,脳は考える前に反応してしまうのだ。

 

[6]  このことから,最近のほとんどのスーパーマーケットには今,店の入り口のとても近くにパン屋があるのがなぜなのかを理解するのに役立つ。焼きたてのパンの香りが新鮮さを示して強烈に快い気分を生み出すだけでなく,パンやドーナッツの香りを嗅ぐと,あなたが空腹になる―買い物リストを放棄して買おうと計画していなかった食べ物を手に取り始めるかもしれないという程度にまで空腹になることも,店の経営者は知っているのだ。

 

[7]  気持ちのいい香りが売り上げ高を増やすかどうかに関するデータは今のところほとんどないけれども,香りの販売戦略はあなたの近くの店にやってくるところだ。アメリカ合衆国では,客をすぐ近くにある店に呼び寄せるために,おいしそうなステーキやワッフルの匂いを出す「よい香りのする広告板」を導入した店もある。日本では,松坂屋百貨店が時間に応じて異なる香りを空中に放出している。刺激的な香りは1日の早くに放出され,一方,気持ちを落ち着かせる香りは1日の遅くに放出される。すべては,顧客がその店でできるだけ多くの時間と金を費やすのを促すように意図されているのだ。

 

[8]  感覚に訴える販売戦略の潜在力はここで終わらない。感覚は互いにつながっており,視覚は感触を想像するのに役立つことがあり,触覚は所有物の感覚を増大させることを店はかなりよく知っている。実際,私たちは買う前に検討している衣服をなでたり,指を走らせたりするのが好きである。それはいわば感覚によるテスト走行のようなものだ。GAPやUNIQLOの店舗にある,あれらの衣料品のテーブルが今ある場所に置かれているのはなぜかと,あなたは思うだろうか。見られるためなのだろうか。

 

[9]  もちろん違う。それらはそこであなたの指を待っているのだ。こういうわけで,店は入り口に魅力的な手触りの衣服をたくさん置くのである。それらは手で触れて試着するように大声を上げており,あなたを店内に引き寄せて,そこにはそれ以上の誘惑が待っているというわけである。あなたは触覚によって,その製品と手に手を取って一緒に旅を始めるときのような協力とつながりの連想を思い出すのだ。これは,あなたの理性と忠誠心とドルを獲得することにおいて,あなたが可能だと思っていた以上に効果的だろう。

 

[10]  自分を抑えられずに最後には派手に買い物をしてしまうように思える瞬間があるのはなぜだろうか,とあなたが思うとしても,心配しなくてよいのだ。それはあなたの責任ではないかもしれない。潜在意識に訴えかけるメッセージから感覚による刺激物まで,あなたは心理的な力の働きにはとても耐えることができない。巧妙な販売戦略があなたの最も原始的な衝動を利用するために働いていたのである。

解答例

Comprehension

  1. What is the main idea of the text?
  2. Scent is the most primitive, deeply rooted sense so we can’t resist its temptation.
  3. Marketing strategies are so powerful that it is difficult to prevent them from stimulating us.
  4. The longer we stay in a store, the more money we spend at the store.

 

  1. Complete the following table using the words in the box. Change the form of the words if necessary.

1, 2, 3 There are various strategies at work to get us to buy products even though we do not (1. plan  ) to buy anything.

4 A researcher studied the brain’s “buy” (2. switch  ).

5,6,7 Supermarkets and other stores try to make customers make unplanned purchases by stimulating the sense of (3. smell  ).

8, 9 Clothes are piled at store entrances to be (4. touched ) and tried on.

10 We are powerless against the marketing (5. strategies ) at work.

 

plan  smell  strategy  switch  touch

 

  1. Write T for true or F for false for each statement.
  2. Marketing strategies start when you get to a store. ( F )
  3. The layout of goods at a supermarket is designed to keep us in the store as long as possible. ( T )
  4. Many companies around the world today seem to use strategies to appeal to our senses. ( T )
  5. Many supermarkets today put bakeries close to the entrance to make customers get hungry. ( T )
  6. At a department store in Japan, they release stimulating scents in the morning to encourage the customers to spend as much time and money as possible. ( T )
  7. Once you are drawn inside a store, you do not have to be worried about temptations any longer. ( F )
  8. If you lose control and buy something that you have not intended to buy, it may be caused by marketing strategies. ( T )
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